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    Nanjing (南京) 

    Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu Province, and in the past it was the capital of several empires and of the Republic of China. Nanjing means “Southern Capital.” It has alternated with Beijing as the capital of big empires and of modern governments. Beijing means Northern Capital. In the past, it was a prominent city, and its rulers benefited from the partial control of trade on the big and long Yangtze River that allowed trade vessels to travel from Sichuan in the west of China to Shanghai and the Pacific Ocean.